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Autofagija

Autophagy, a fundamental process for degrading and recycling cellular components.. Ohsumi’s work proved critical in explaining the mechanism by which cells eliminate worn-out protein complexes and organelles, which are otherwise too large to be degraded by other means. The abnormal accumulation of such components is highly damaging to cells and is known to play a role in certain diseases. Autophagy, also called autophagocytosis, the degradation of worn, abnormal, or malfunctioning cellular components that takes place within organelles known as lysosomes. Autophagy serves housekeeping functions, enabling the breakdown and recycling of cellular materials, and helps balance energy demands during periods of stress. The term autophagy was introduced in 1963 by Belgian cytologist and biochemist Christian René de Duve, whose work also provided the first evidence for the involvement of lysosomes in the autophagic process. autophagy

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Lečenje gladovanjem

LIntermittent fasting (IF) is currently one of the world’s most popular health and fitness trends.Many studies show that it can have powerful effects on your body and brain and may even help you live longer. Fasting has been a practice throughout human evolution. Ancient hunter-gatherers didn’t have supermarkets, refrigerators or food available year-round. Sometimes they couldn’t find anything to eat. As a result, humans evolved to be able to function without food for extended periods of time. In fact, fasting from time to time is more natural than always eating 3–4 (or more) meals per day. By 12 hours, you’ve entered the metabolic state called ketosis (Anton et al., Obesity 2018). In this state, your body starts to break down and burn fat. By 18 hours, you’ve switched to fat-burning mode and are generating significant ketones (Anton et al., Obesity 2018). Within 24 hours, your cells are increasingly recycling old components and breaking down misfolded proteins linked to Alzheimer’s and other diseases (Alirezaei et al., Autophagy 2010). This is a process called autophagy. Autophagy is an important process for cellular and tissue rejuvenation – it removes damaged cellular components including misfolded proteins. When your cells can’t or don’t initiate autophagy, bad things happen, including neurodegenerative diseases, which seem to come about as a result of the reduced autophagy that occurs during aging. Ghrelin, the hunger hormone, also promotes growth hormone secretion. Growth hormone helps preserve lean muscle mass and reduces fat tissue accumulation, particularly as we age. It also appears to play a role in mammalian longevity and can promote wound healing and cardiovascular health. By 54 hours, your insulin has dropped to its lowest level point since you started fasting and your body is becoming increasingly insulin-sensitive (Klein et al., 1993). Lowering your insulin levels has a range of health benefits both short term and long term. Lowered insulin levels put a brake on the insulin and mTOR signaling pathways, activating autophagy. Lowered insulin levels can reduce inflammation, make you more insulin sensitive (and/or less insulin resistant, which is especially a good thing if you have a high risk of developing diabetes) and protect you from chronic diseases of aging including cancer. By 72 hours, your body is breaking down old immune cells and generating new ones (Cheng et al., 2014). Studies in mice have shown that prolonged fasting (greater than 48 hours), by reducing IGF-1 and PKA, leads to stress resistance, self-renewal and regeneration of hematopoietic or blood cell stem cells. Through this same mechanism, prolonged fasting for 72 hours has been shown to preserve healthy white blood cell or lymphocyte counts in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

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Nobelova nagrada 2016. za objasnjenje mehanizma autofagije za japanskog naučnika

Yoshinori Ohsumi was born 1945 in Fukuoka, Japan. He received a Ph.D. from University of Tokyo in 1974. After spending three years at Rockefeller University, New York, USA, he returned to the University of Tokyo where he established his research group in 1988. He is since 2009 a professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Prize motivation: "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy."

Japanese cell biologist specializing in autophagy, the process that cells use to destroy and recycle cellular components

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